Why did South Africa voluntarily abandon nuclear weapons

The National Interest website recently published an analysis of South Africa‘s voluntary abandonment of nuclear weapons by Robert Farley, a senior lecturer at the University of Kentucky.

According to the article, the Republic of South Africa is the only country in the world to build a nuclear weapons program, then abandon the program on its own when domestic and international conditions change. Why did South Africa decide to build a nuclear arsenal?

How does the country build a nuclear arsenal? Why did the country decide to abandon nuclear weapons? The answer is largely unclear whether that answer may be a lesson for the future of nuclear weapons development on the Korean Peninsula and elsewhere today and in the future.

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The Republic of South Africa seeks nuclear weapons for familiar reasons. Although the South African nation is capable of outperforming any of its regional rivals, Pretoria fears this advantage may diminish over time.

The South African government also recognizes that its widespread disdain for its racist regime can prevent Western countries from assisting in any serious confrontation against the Soviet Union. or former allies.

Nuclear weapons will provide not only a direct weapon to deal with a military attack against South Africa, but also a means to take advantage of Western diplomatic and military support during the crisis. South Africa can extract uranium on its territory and enrich uranium for domestic facilities.

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With a modern industrial economy and access to science and technology research facilities in the US and Europe, South Africa can easily develop the technical expertise needed to make weapons. The South African government does not worry too much about the pursuit of nuclear weapons that could make it an isolated nation.

In general, South Africa has built six types of uranium nuclear weapons. These devices are too large and cannot fit any type of missile South Africa currently has. And so they will be supplied to British bombers like Electric Canberra or Blackburn Buccaneer.

China announced many new modern weapons at its 70-year-old parade

Produced domestically, the Chinese military is preparing to introduce some advanced weapons the world has never seen, during the parade to celebrate the 70th anniversary of China’s National Day on October 1.

According to CNN, about 15,000 soldiers, more than 160 aircraft and 580 types of military equipment will be the main part of the 80-minute parade in Beijing. It will highlight China’s military progress over the past 70 years, since the country was founded in 1949.

The key point in this parade is the drone technology. Beijing also boasts some of the best missile systems in the world. Major General Tan Min, deputy commander of the military parade and chief of staff of the Central Military Region Command, said in weapons made in China, highlighted the possibility of innovation in research and defense development.

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CNN listed a number of weapons that might make their first appearance at the parade on October 1. Much of the hype of the parade focused on the DF-41 intercontinental ballistic missile. It will be the mainstay of the strength of China’s strategic missile force for many years to come and be promoted as the planet’s strongest rocket.

DF-41 has been in development since 1997. It was rumored to appear in parades in 2015 and 2017, but it did not appear in the end. Rumor has it that the DF-41 will be made public in parades this year, following reports of Chinese state media that the rocket was discovered during training for parades in Beijing earlier this month.

Hans Kristensen, an analyst at FAS, said the satellite image also showed something very similar to the silo for ICBM launched from the ground. Kristensen said that silos are more similar to Russian ICBM silos than older silos for liquid fuel rockets.

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DF-41 missiles use solid fuel engines such as Russia’s Topol and Yars. Meanwhile, US main ICBM, Minuteman III, uses solid fuels. However, it can only carry a nuclear warhead, because the design of the three warheads is limited by treaty with Russia.

China may have put into operation a number of DF-41 missiles, at least 18 of which appeared in satellite images at its base in Inner Mongolia earlier this year. Although the DF-41 can carry 10 warheads, in fact only 3 warheads, the remaining are bait, according to the news of the atomic scientists (BAS).

Racing a new type of nuclear weapon, Russia declared victory over the United States

The Kremlin emphasized that Russia is outstripping other countries such as the US after President Trump bragged that the US has “similar technology“. The statement was made in the context of a mysterious missile accident on August 8 in the Russian White Sea. Rosatom, Russia’s nuclear agency, said the explosion involved a rocket launched from the sea that left five people dead and three injured.

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The agency said it would continue to develop the new weapon and called those who died “heroes.” On August 12, writing on Twitter, President Trump said he had “learned a lot” from the explosion he thought occurred during a test of a nuclear-powered cruise missile tested by Russian President Vladimir Putin announced last year.

Trump said Washington had “similar, albeit more advanced technology” and said that Russians were worried about the air quality around the place where the accident occurred. When asked about these things on August 13, Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov stressed that Russia, not the United States, was the first country and a pioneer in developing new nuclear weapons.

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“As our president has mentioned many times, Russian technology in this area is far ahead of what other countries achieve at a considerable distance and it is very unique,” Peskov said. President Putin used the 2018 national message to reveal new nuclear weapons he called “invincible”, including nuclear-powered cruise missiles, unmanned equipment powered by underwater nuclear power and laser weapons.

Of these, the 9M730 Burevestnik missile is marketed as a weapon that can penetrate any existing defense system in the world.

On August 13, a senior US official, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said it was unclear whether the explosion in the White Sea was related to nuclear weapons but believed there was a radioactive leak. The official also commented that the explosion could be a significant setback for Russia’s missile development program, although it remains unclear whether the incident occurred during launch.

China develops particularly dangerous sonar waves to disperse crowds

At a time when the Hong Kong police issue of abusive force against protesters is gaining worldwide attention and concern, it has been reported that the Beijing government is developing the first portable acoustic wave weapon in the world. gender, can be used to deal with protests and riots. This weapon has now been put into mass production.

The weapon’s appearance is similar to a rifle, has a stock, trigger and gun barrel, mainly using low frequency sound waves to disperse the crowd. Information from the scientists said that this weapon made the human body particularly uncomfortable; due to sound waves hitting the eardrum, eyeballs, stomach, liver and brain.

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The weapon’s appearance is similar to a rifle, has a stock, trigger and gun barrel, mainly using low frequency sound waves to disperse the crowd. Information from the scientists said that this weapon made the human body particularly uncomfortable; due to sound waves hitting the eardrum, eyeballs, stomach, liver and brain.

A sonar is a weapon that uses sound to impact or destroy a target. Weapons use a stimulating tool to fire extremely large sound waves, which can cause the affected person to suffer casualties or incapable of fighting. Studies starting in the 1940s show that low-frequency sound waves can cause dizziness, headaches, vomiting, bowel spasms, loss of autonomy, organ and heart damage, of course depends on the intensity of the sound and the exposure of the human body.

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When a person does not have any protective equipment that is exposed to 120 decibels or more of sound, he or she may experience discomfort or hearing damage while in volume. An increase above 150 decibels can cause eardrum rupture, hearing loss and even mental disorders. Sonic weapons are usually large in size and must be installed in the vehicle, as it requires a large and stable power supply.

On September 4, a team of experts from the Chinese Academy of Sciences met in Beijing, agreed with the design of the research team and approved mass production, also proposing that weapons should be put into use as soon as possible.

The information also indicates that the Chinese Government launched the Soundwave Weapon Program in 2017. However, there are declassified data showing that the Chinese government’s research on acoustic weapons has begun. at least more than a decade earlier.

The report said how the focus of the study focused on how certain spectrums can cause damage to the eyes, brain and internal organs. The animal tested “had a high death rate” because of the increased effect of the weapon, Chinese scientists could apply to develop “torture technology”.

The United States suspected Nudol could destroy military satellites

Although Russia promotes that Nudol can destroy US military satellites and paralyze the country, the actual capacity of this system is very unpredictable. Skepticism about the capability of the Nudol system is covered by topwar in an article published on September 10.

‘Russia has declared a number of successful tests of the Nudol system several times. The US military has shown its panic at the Russian declaration that the weapon can intercept any opponent’s satellite in Earth’s orbit.

The revealed information shows that Nudol flew 2000 km in just 15 minutes and hit the target. The Pentagon will suffer a great loss if these missiles officially enter the Russian army because only a few of these missiles are enough to completely disarm the NATO army.

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With this weapon, Russia does not need to spend a lot of money and weapons, just shoot down some US and NATO military satellites in Earth’s orbit. After that, the US military will be paralyzed without any connection. The Russian Defense Ministry said that in the near future, Nudol will be put into service in the Russian army and that they will be designed only to shoot down satellites that endanger the country.

Nudol’s rocket shells can hit targets in space within a radius of about 1,500 km and at altitudes up to 800 km. With this system, once again, the Russian Federation proved in fact that it was Moscow who won the arms race between the United States and the Russian Federation, ‘the topwar expert said.

The article further analyzes that, although the Nudol danger to US military satellites is valid, Russia cannot use Nudol to cripple the US military.

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In the case of USA-243, the military communication satellite of the WGS (Wireband Global SATCOM) series, launched in orbit in May 2013, is operating at an altitude of 35,786 km. NAVSTAR’s satellite, which supports GPS, rotates in a circular orbit at an altitude of 20,180 km.

At this height, the A-235 Nudol system could not launch the interceptor warhead at such a high altitude. For example, to launch 730 kilograms of payload to such an altitude, a rocket equivalent to Japan’s H-II is needed, with a launch weight of 288 tons.

Meanwhile, Nudol’s parameters are much more modest: according to published data, its initial weight is 9.6 tons and it can only reach an altitude of 800km. So simply, Nudol will not have access to the operational and navigating satellites in the United States.

Russian supersonic weapons will fail in the next 5 decades

The Russian Ministry of Defense recently informed that the Avangard supersonic missiles that could be launched from fighter jets will be officially put into operation by 2020. In March, in the Federal Message, the President of Russia Vladimir Putin proudly introduced new weapons, including the supersonic rocket Avangard, which can move towards the target at Mach 20, and strike like a “fireball”.

When moving to the target, the fighting floor had strong maneuvering wings both horizontally and vertically. “That makes it absolutely impossible to be intercepted for any air defense and missile defense,” Putin said. The use of new composite materials enables the long-term controlled flight of the winged flight floor to be solved almost exclusively in plasma.

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US intelligence reports assess Avangard as being able to penetrate any of the most advanced missile defense systems in the world today. US Army Strategic Command commander John Hyten described a grim scenario for the country’s military forces when faced with the new high-speed weapons that Russia is developing: “They I do not have any defense against such weapons. “

According to the Pentagon, Russia has successfully tested supersonic missiles with nuclear warheads in 2016. The third test was conducted in October 2017 but failed when the rocket exploded seconds ago. when hit the target. The Kremlin experimented for the fourth time in the summer of 2018 and the most recent one was in December 2018. The US side predicts that, according to the current pace of development, the Avangard will be operational by 2020.

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According to Thomas Juliano, assistant professor of aviation engineering at the University of Notre Dame, the Avangard rocket uses a design called a Waverider, but the information has not been confirmed by Moscow. Waverider is the technology used in the development of supersonic aircraft that improves the lift rate when shock waves are generated by the flight as a lifting surface.

The mysterious explosion in Russia is due to a failed nuclear missile test

US officials suspect a mysterious explosion in Russia that killed seven people on August 8 was due to testing Moscow’s new generation nuclear missile. US intelligence officials are rushing to investigate the mysterious explosion over the weekend that spread radioactivity off the north of Russia.

Many people suspect the incident is the result of testing a kind of nuclear-powered cruise missile. This weapon was praised by Russian President Vladimir Putin as the main piece in the arms race with the United States. At least 7 people were killed, including 5 scientists, in the August 8 explosion. Many consider this to be the most serious nuclear incident since the Chernobyl disaster, though it seems much smaller.

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US officials have yet to speak publicly about the August 8 explosion. However, according to the New York Times, the Russian government’s slow and mysterious reaction caused many cities and towns around the explosion area to become increasingly worried. This also attracted the curiosity of analysts in Washington and Europe. They say the explosion will reveal technical weaknesses in Moscow’s new weapons program.

The August 8 explosion occurred at the test site of the Nenoska missile far from the mainland. The initial announcement of the Russian military said it was a solid-fuel rocket engine explosion being tested, and confirmed that the radiation level was normal.

This contradicts information from Severodvinsk city officials, about 40 km from the explosion site. An official in charge of civil defense warns two atmospheric radiation measuring machines to record the spike index. Russian media later stated that the radiation level increased by 200 times normal. The moment the notice was removed from the Severodvinsk city portals, the locals rushed to buy iodine to prevent contamination.

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The new generation cruise missile with the official name in Russia is Burevestnik 9M370. President Putin once affirmed that he could shoot to every corner of the world. Running on a small nuclear reactor, missiles go beyond the normal range of other fuel-powered missiles.

Putin’s 9M370 missile introduced in a 2018 federal message with a spectacular video is part of a new generation of Russian-designed weapons designed to avoid the US missile defense system. In recent reports from the Pentagon and the US government, the prospect of missile-powered cruise missiles has been seen as a new threat to national security.

Learn about nuclear weapons and the power to destroy life

With the destructive power and the influence of radioactivity, nuclear weapons have become the most feared destructive weapon ever. Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 marked the end of World War II. However, the horrors that it left were never forgotten, an unprecedented destructive power plus the influence of radioactivity caused the atomic bomb to become the most terrifying destructive weapon from so far.

After World War II, the arms race between the US and the Soviet Union in the Cold War began from 1945 to the end of the 1980s. Both sides spent huge investments in research and production. nuclear weapons. And since then, the threat of nuclear war has always been lurking.

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After the cold war, the Soviet Union collapsed, relations between the US and Russia improved and the two countries pledged to cut nuclear weapons. A series of treaties are signed, in which the main objective is to reduce and limit the nuclear warheads owned by each country. But not because of that, the threat from nuclear war ends, countries like North Korea continue to test nuclear weapons. The US, Russia and China can also attack any target in the world with nuclear warheads. The weapon of destruction had many different changes to the two bombs nearly half a century ago.

The atomic bomb, also known as the nuclear bomb because of its destructive power, originates from these tiny nuclei. There are two basic ways for nuclear energy to be emitted from atoms: fission and nuclear fusion. In it, fusion is the power to regenerate from solar energy, and fission is the destructive power used in atomic bombs.

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While uranium atoms typically need 700 million years to decay, an impact from free neutrons will make the nucleus unstable and possibly decay immediately. When uranium atoms receive free neutrons, it decays into two lighter isotope atoms and releases about 2 or 3 new neutrons. This process simultaneously emits gamma rays that radiate and release energy.

The trio of Russian weapons has no rival in the world

Avangard marked a significant advance in Russian rocket science. Different from its predecessor and foreign missiles, Avangard can reach impressive heights, fly with supersonic speed and outdo most of the current missile systems. According to RBTH news, at the present time, there is not a rocket with the same capacity as Avangard.

The missile’s power was 130 times stronger than the US atomic bomb that had been dropped on Hiroshima, Japan in World War 2. It could travel at 30,000 km / h, or 27 times the speed. sound. Russian Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov said that no missile at this time could shoot down Avangard when it flew at such speed.

In addition to powerful offensive weapons, Russia also possesses one of the most advanced defense systems in the world: S-400 Triumph. The S-400 can detect air targets at a distance of 600km and shoot down at a distance of 400km. It can take down various types of targets ranging from aircraft, cruise missiles, drones or ballistic missiles at a height of 50km and a maximum speed of 17,000km for hour.

Compared to US rival MIM-104 Patriot, the S-400 is rated by military experts as being more prominent. The S-400 has the ability to detect and shoot down targets from all directions, while the Patriot can only scan airspace within 180 degrees.

Bộ ba vũ khí Nga chưa có đối thủ trên thế giới - Ảnh 3.

Developed based on Armata tanks, T-14 tanks mark an important milestone in the development of the 21st century heavy armored technology. T-14 is the world’s first third-generation tank. It is equipped with a 2A82 125mm smooth barrel gun with a digital control system.

This is the only tank in the world that does not need a soldier to control the turret. The entire crew will sit in a separate compartment isolated by strong bulletproof steel layers. This technology allows to minimize human damage when T-14 is directly fired by fire. In addition, the steel armor of T-14 can withstand anti-tank missiles and missiles.

American weapons sell well in Europe thanks to tensions with Russia and Iran

American weapons manufacturers said the demand for fighter jets, missile defense systems and other weapons increased despite the US-European trade tension. “Iran is our best business partner. Every time they do things like shoot down American planes, they increase the feeling of being threatened.” Senior leader in the arms industry in the United States.

According to US weapons manufacturers, fears of Iran and Russia help them take on lucrative orders. This year, the US government sent a high-level delegation, including Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross, to the Paris Air Show last week, where about 400 US businesses offered weapons in a tight setting. straight between the US and Iran is about to explode.

Lockheed Martin, Boeing and many other leading weapons manufacturers all said they received many orders at this year’s exhibition.

“Both previous exhibitions have no orders. Currently Europe is Lockheed Martin’s fastest-growing market,” said Rick Edwards, Lockheed Martin’s international manager, who has won an order. selling F-35 fighters to Belgium and possibly Poland.

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While Europe’s concern for Russia has been a long time, recent tensions with Iran are also expected to boost Europe’s demand for weapons in the near future.

“Europe is really our big partner right now. It’s a big change in the past few years, even just the last 18 months” – Ralph Acaba, chairman of the Group’s combined defense system. Raytheon Co weapons, revealed.

The group plans to finalize a deal of hundreds of millions of dollars with Germany this year. Meanwhile, Boeing also expects to hit an order for the F / A-18 Super Hornet fighter in Germany, Switzerland and Finland.

Mr. Edwards and the leaders in the US arms manufacturing industry said US trade tension – Europe hardly affected their business. Lieutenant-General Charles Hooper – director of the Pentagon’s National Defense Cooperation Agency, said Europe accounted for a quarter of foreign arms deals (worth $ 55.7 billion) that the agency processed in 2018.